Guidelines for Authors to Finalize an Accepted Paper in IRBE 

Please adhere to the following procedures in preparing the final version of your manuscript.  Unless otherwise negotiated with the Chief Editor, a publication fee of $100 must accompany the final manuscript.  Payment can be made by electronic transfer (more information is available from Prof. Kishore Kulkarni at or by paypal account or by a check payable to “IRBE” and sent to:

Prof. Kishore G. Kulkarni
Campus Box 77, P. O. Box 173362
Metropolitan State University of Denver
Denver, CO 80217-3362, USA

File formatting.

  • Final manuscripts should be sent in Microsoft Word format. Separate Excel files are acceptable for tables and figures, but tables, charts, graphs should be placed INSIDE the manuscript at an appropriate place. Tables hanging out at the end of the paper are not acceptable. IRBE expects all authors to provide the data tables for replication of paper’s results.

  • Please utilize the following convention for naming your files: your surname to be followed by the element in the file (e.g., Smith-text.doc, Smith-Figure 1.doc, etc.).

Title page information

 Please provide the following information on your title page.

  • No title is necessary so avoid Dr, Prof. etc.

  • Author name(s). Author affiliation(s), institution(s).

  • Contact information for corresponding author ( email is sufficient; no phone numbers are needed on the manuscripts).

  • Running header to appear at the top right corner of every page in your published article.

  • Abstract of not more than 200 words is needed for each paper.

  • Up to three JEL codes should be included on the bottom of each page.

  • Use 3-5 key words that would express main contents of the paper. Use of generic expression such as country study, inflation, capital flows etc is fine.

  • Book reviews need only the reviewing author’s name, affiliation, and contact information, plus the publication information for the reviewed book: book title, author(s)/editor(s), publisher location: publisher, year, # of front matter pages (roman numeral), # of book pages (arabic numeral), price, ISBN#.

Manuscript formatting:  All formatting of your manuscript will be done by a professional typesetter, according to established guidelines. Indeed, when preparing your manuscript for submission, please do not try to format the layout or appearance of the work yourself. The following points will make it easier for us to format your manuscript correctly:

  • Use only one space after punctuation.

  • Do not leave blank lines between paragraphs unless there is a deliberate break in the text.

  • Do not use hyphenation/justification, windows, or other automatic functions in the files you send. They will not transmit properly to our computers.

  • Do not insert spaces between initials.

  • Section headings should be in upper-case, flush left. Subheadings may be upper- and lower-case, flush left. Further subheadings should be italicized, in upper- and lower-case, flush left. The text should then begin on the same line, immediately following the further subheadings. All three categories of headings should be in bold face.

  • Headings, subheadings, and titles of tables, figures, etc. should be brief but informative, parallel in construction, and in a consistent style. As a group, the headings and subheadings should give a clear outline of the structure of the work and its parts. Superscript note numbers or asterisks should never appear in a title heading, or subheading.

  • Avoid appendices as much as possible.

  • Refer to all figures and tables in the text by Figure 1, 2, 3… and Table 1, 2, 3..

  • A further title for each table and figure is preferable.

  • Computer printouts are not acceptable as table copy.

  • In statistical matter throughout (including tables):

    • a dash (—) indicates that the figure is zero or less than half the final digit shown, or that the item does not exist;

    • a single dot (.) indicates decimals;

    • a comma (,) separates thousands and millions;

    • a short dash (–) is used between years or months (for example, 1998-99 or January-June) to indicate a total of the years or months inclusive of the beginning and ending years or months.

Use of Quotations: 

When using quotations from published sources, please follow exactly the spelling and other conventions of the original. Please place interpolations (comments you insert that are not part of the quotation) in square brackets, not parentheses. Indicate internal omissions with ellipsis points; do not use ellipsis points at the beginning or end of a quote.

Quotations need to be identified by source. Direct quotations should be enclosed within double quotation marks; quotations within quotations should be enclosed in single quotation marks. Commas, periods,  colons, and semicolons, go inside the close quote (,” .” :" ;"). A question mark or exclamation point belongs inside the close quote if it is part of the quotation.

Citations and notes. A citation is used when the reader is being referred to a given work, or to identify more fully a work the author has mentioned. If any discussion is included, then this requires a note rather than a citation and should include the reference in brackets where needed within the note.

  • References cited within the text must be referred to by author’s last name and date of publication placed in brackets, not parentheses. If you prefer that the cited author’s name not be placed inside the brackets, reword your sentence so that the author’s name can be gracefully worked into the text. Then follow it with the publication date in brackets. Separate references by semi-colons. If a reference comes at the end of a sentence, the period follows the bracket. Every publication or unpublished manuscript mentioned must be listed in the References list and cited, when mentioned, in this manner.

  • All notes to the text are formatted as numbered endnotes (using arabic numerals, not roman numerals). Show note numbers within the text with a superscript. The superscript note number is best placed at the end of a clause, sentence, or quotation, outside the punctuation. Superscripts should never appear in chapter titles or subheads.

  • We prefer that the final version of your manuscript not use the auto-formatting in MS Word with regards to both numbering and endnote location.

  • Do not incorporate notes belonging to tables or figures into the sequence of numbered notes, as the exact placement of these elements will not be fixed until the text is typeset.

  • A credit (or acknowledgment) note is unnumbered. It should be placed before the numbered endnotes.

  • Use the same short-form citation for non-sequential references to a previously cited source (rather than op cit.).

  • The text to all notes should appear before the references in a section entitled "Notes."

Sample citations as they should appear in the text:

Samuelson [1959] uses this technique.

Many authors have found similar results [e.g., Rogers 1955; Bates 1969, Autry 1973].

(Citation is to a non-inclusive sampling of works. Do not overdo the use of such words as e.g., and however. See below]

Sample citations to avoid are:

1) The data reveal several inconsistencies [see Smith 1985, 1999]

2. These additional results are available from the contact author.


Reference all articles and texts cited in the References section immediately following the Notes. Do not put reference information in citations in the text, other than author name and date. List only those references that are actually cited in the text or notes. The References section is not a bibliography. Please follow the formatting guidelines below.

  • Arrange references alphabetically with the first (or only) author’s last name first, then first name and middle initial or middle name. Only the name of the first author in a multi-author entry is inverted.

  • If more than one work by the same author is cited, arrange them chronologically, earliest first. For multiple works within the same year, give the year a suffix a, b, c …. The name of the author(s) should be deleted after the first mention and replaced by 12 long underscores or a 3-em dash followed by a period.

References must contain all necessary bibliographic information for our journal style. Examples follow below for how to treat the most common forms of references. If you have a document that does not appear to fit any of the following examples, please give sufficient data to enable a reader to locate the document, 1942.

Open Access Licensing Policy:

IRBE is an open access journal, which means that all content is freely available without charge to the user or his/her institution. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author. This is in accordance with the standard practice of the definition of open access.

 Copyright Policy:

The Journal or any part thereof may not be reproduced in any form without the permission of the Publisher. All data, views, opinions, etc. that are published in this Journal are the sole responsibility of the individual authors and neither the Publisher nor the Editor is in any way responsible for them. It is the sole responsibility of the author to obtain permission from other publications for inclusion in papers. The Journal shall not be responsible for any copyright infringement.

This Journal will be licensed under the Creative Commons guidelines ( The Library of Congress has already issued an ISSN for this journal.

Corrections to Published Work:  

Honest errors are a part of research and publishing and require publication of a correction when they are detected. We expect authors to inform the Journal’s Editor of any errors of fact they have noticed or been informed of in their article once published. Corrections are made at the journal’s discretion. The correction procedure depends on the publication stage of the article, but in all circumstances a correction notice is published as soon as possible. Details can be found on the Call for Papers section of the journal website.


Retractions are considered by journal editors in cases of evidence of unreliable data or findings, plagiarism, duplicate publication, and unethical research. We may consider an expression of concern notice if an article is under investigation. All retraction notices will explain why the article was retracted. The retraction procedure depends on the publication stage of the article.

 Competing Interests:

 Authors should disclose four types of information:

  • Their associations with commercial entities that provided support for the work reported in the submitted manuscript (the time frame for disclosure of this information is the lifespan of the work being reported).

  • Their associations with commercial entities that could be viewed as having an interest in the general area of the submitted manuscript (the time frame for disclosure of this information is the 36 months before submission of the manuscript).

  • Any similar financial associations involving their spouse or their children less than 18 years of age.

  • Non-financial associations that may be relevant to the submitted manuscript.

Publication Ethics and Publication Malpractice Statement:

The International Review of Business and Economics and its Publisher, IRBE Publications, Denver, Colorado, are members of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE). As such, this journal follows the COPE Code of Conduct and Best Practice Guidelines for Journal Editors and the Code of Conduct for Journal Publishers.  Any plagiarism and other unethical items may be reported to the violators’ supervisors or institutions.